Mark Bentley

Senior International Fellows Program ~ 2012

Partnering with Local Government: Accelerating the Achievement of Community Foundation Sustainability


Community foundations are one of the fastest growing forms of philanthropy worldwide, almost doubling in number in the last ten years. However, most community foundations do not achieve sustainability until after seven to ten years and this is a major challenge for the movement.


The aim Mr. Mark Bentley’s research is to identify and test a range of partnership opportunities with local government that might be successful in helping community foundations accelerate the journey to organizational and financial sustainability.  The academic literature was reviewed for information on community foundation sustainability and the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful working relationships with local government. Partnership opportunities were identified and then tested in discussions with community foundation leaders worldwide.


The results revealed a clear and consistent group of practical opportunities through which local government could support the start-up and survival of community foundations worldwide, as well as some opportunities that were more context-specific in nature. Whilst highlighting many of the challenges for a community foundation in working more closely with local government, the research proposed a range of strategies that would maximize the potential for successful partnership and mutual benefit.



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Mr. Vassilis Goulandris

e-Democratising Philanthropy: A Proposal for the Repositioning of Community Foundations

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The paper re-examines, challenges and attempts to re-focus the founding assumptions of community foundations (CFs), especially in the wake of the new information society era. Mr. Goulandris, General Manager, access2democracy, takes the position that with few exceptions, community foundations have not adequately addressed the challenges of the democratization of the public space brought by the internet, where citizens, civil society organizations (CSOs) and communities are self-organized and most importantly self-defined. He goes on to argue that these changes demand a total rethinking of the way citizen engagement is approached and how CSOs impact the issue of governance.


The paper proposes that CFs, due to their unique function and structure, can and should become “communication hubs” for the communities they serve. This is particularly appropriate because the idea of community foundations rests on a fundamental premise of consensus building and “multi-stakeholder” cooperation across a defined sphere of influence. Mr. Goulandris argues that if CFs utilize this enhanced communication function, they can advance the e-democracy paradigm and help reconnect citizens and communities, democratize the way decision-making is practiced and further transparency and accountability of various institutions.


In its conclusion the paper argues that e-democracy challenges the nature and function of CFs and urges foundation leaders to “think out of the box,” which will help invigorate their institutions to meet contemporary challenges.








Mr. Yung Hsing Kao

Exploring the Potential and Strategies for Community Foundations in Taiwan

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In his paper, Mr. Kao, who is the Assistant Director of the Himalaya Foundation, argues that community foundations can be a new mechanism to help address current challenges and meet future development needs. He then explores how the model can be implemented in his country.


Kao offers a comprehensive definition of community foundations. Among the characteristics most relevant to his study are that community foundations: seek to improve the quality of life for all people in a defined geographic area; are governed by a board of citizens broadly reflective of the communities they serve; make grants to other nonprofit organizations to address a wide variety of emerging needs in the community; and are accountable to the community by informing the general public on a regular basis about their purpose, activities, and finances.


After presenting a brief overview of the nonprofit sector in Taiwan, the paper critically addresses the sector's shortcomings including: the absence of all but a few active and engaged boards and grantmaking foundations (the majority of foundations operate their own projects, and corporate foundations often act as public relations instruments for the company); the lack of accountability and transparency; and the absence of tools that allow donors to control their own philanthropy, such as field of interest or donor advised funds. The remainder of the paper explores strategies for the development of community foundations.








Ms. Fikile Kuhlase

Corporations, Community, Private-Public Sector Partnerships (PPPs) and Community Foundations: The South African Case

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In her paper, Fikile Kuhlase discusses the emergent trend of corporations supporting community foundation-like organizations. She highlights the strategic intervention of the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC), a development finance institution. The IDC is described as the first corporation in South Africa to adopt the community foundation concept as part of its strategy for socio-economic transformation and “broad-based” black economic empowerment (BEE). Of note in the IDC model is that community foundations take up an equity stake in IDC-funded projects; the South African government through the Minister of Trade and Industry is the sole shareholder; and corporate social investment is viewed as central to business activity.


In conclusion, Ms. Kuhlase argues in favor of a model that places the community foundation at the center of a tripartite alliance between civil society and the private and public sectors. She concludes that community foundations are well positioned to take the lead in forging mutually beneficial partnerships in order to promote the common good, and describes community foundations that choose not to tackle social justice issues as wasting their potential to be catalysts for social change.








Mr. Partha Rudra

Adapting the Concept of Community Foundation to the Indian Situation

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The paper explores emerging opportunities for deepening social democracy and social justice work, together with a proposed rationale for adaptation and viability of the community foundation concept in India.


In his paper, Partha Rudra, Director (Programs), National Foundation for India, begins with the understanding that although it may have originated in the United States, community foundations now constitute a global movement with a wide variety of forms, and structures. In examining the US model, he argues that community foundations in the United States have played a useful role in serving the disadvantaged at the local level, while building endowments from individual donations, bequests and corporate donations.


Using this example, Rudra argues that India needs to establish many community foundations or community foundation-like organizations to accelerate the process of economic development and strengthen social justice. Like their counterparts in the US, Rudra argues that community foundations in India have to play a strategic role in mobilizing people, raising resources from diverse donors, bridging gaps in local programs, promoting institution building and serving as nodal point for multi-sectoral partnership. With a mature civil society sector, a favorable legal and fiscal climate, and a rich body of work that has already strengthened community-level institutions, the paper argues that the community foundation movement in India has a strong base on which to build.











Mr. Andrés Thompson

Exploring the Concept of Community Foundations and its Adaptability to Latin America

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Mr. Thompson, Program Director for Latin America and the Caribbean, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, begins his paper with three central questions: How can an external funder develop alternatives for the long-term sustainability of local development? How can funders move from leading a strategic alliance to a more institutionalized form of community philanthropy, participation and decision-making? And, based on the relative success of the US experience and the spread of the model internationally, is the community foundation concept adaptable to Latin America?


In directly addressing the question whether CFs are a feasible concept for Latin America's development, Thompson raises several points. First, he argues that the asset base that CFs attempt to build, divert s resources from more pressing needs; second, citing social analysts from Brazil, he asserts that tax incentives are not sufficient to assure a consistent flow of private resources to support social projects; third, the notion of wealth should be thought not just in terms of economic assets but also in terms of social and human capital; fourth, citing several examples of alliance building, the paper emphasizes the key importance of the leadership role of community foundations; and fifth, in terms of its grantmaking ssues of wealth redistribution, social justice, inclusion and citizenship should be incorporated as guiding principles in designing local grantmaking strategies.


In the end Thompson concludes by stating that, although the “money” and the “community” approaches should both be present during the building process, the more solid basis for their future sustainability relies in their capacity to be responsive to the community's needs, and that the primary aim of a community foundation should be to build the community assets and not foundation assets.











Ms. Meryem Senay Ataselim

Contributions of the Turkish Diaspora in the United States

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Meryem Senay Ataselim looks at current trends in philanthropic giving to Turkey among the Turkish diaspora community in the United States and the motivations behind this giving. Her research is set against the backdrop of recent increases in the number of Turkish diaspora organizations in the United States, the pace of development of Turkey's nonprofit sector, and the perception that contributions from the Turkish diaspora are an important funding source for this development.


The objections most often cited by Turkish donors for not giving to Turkey include: difficulty in identifying appropriate organizations and monitoring their performance; lack of accountability and transparency, and professionalism in Turkey's nonprofit sector; the fact that donations do not always go to the projects for which they were given; and that gifts to Turkey often do not qualify for tax deductions.


Ms. Ataselim maintains that Turkish diaspora organizations will need to address these objections if they wish to put down roots and to tap the giving potential of the Turkish American community. Her recommendations to the organizations include:







Ms. Christina Bookhart

Expanding the Circle of Giving: The Community Foundation Model and African American Members of Generation X

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In her paper, Christina Bookhart sets out four objectives: (1) to look at factors informing traditional giving among African Americans; (2) to identify ways to expand the philanthropic outlook of African American members of Generation X (aged 25-40); (3) to determine the extent to which philanthropic organizations can expect African American members of Generation X to engage with community foundations as donors, staff, and board members in the future; and (4) to identify themes within African American populations that may facilitate strategic giving and alliances to enhance the culture of giving in Southern New Jersey.


Although African Americans have a long and varied history of philanthropy that is characterized by collective giving, community assistance, and “uplifting the race,” African American engagement with community foundations is low. Ms. Bookhart makes the following recommendations to begin to remedy this:







Ms. Ellie Demopoulos

“It's All Greek to Me”—Developing Corporate Social Responsibility in Greece

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Ellie Demopoulos draws on models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the US and Europe for the purpose of examining how effective CSR practices may be applied in Greece. In her paper she also looks at corporate partnerships with new and emerging community foundations to see how corporate involvement can help develop or sustain community foundations. Finally, she identifies the challenges to the growth of CSR in Greece, where the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs is responsible for coordinating the CSR effort.

Ms. Demopoulos' findings include the following:

CSR can serve as a useful tool in building Third-Sector capacity, though it is a complex task that will require all players, including nonprofit organizations and politicians, to recast their roles. Business figures deciding in favor of CSR must be visionaries and have a firm understanding that corporate responsibility is more than an advertising or marketing tool, and that it has the potential to effectively address social issues.










Mr. Joseph Gonzales

Cultivation of a Community Partnership: The Philadelphia Foundation and the Taller Puertorriqueño

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Joseph Gonzales's paper examines how a thirty-year “partnership” between The Philadelphia Community Foundation and Taller Puertorriqueño, a community-based, ethnic arts and educational center in Philadelphia, benefited the foundation, the community and its organizations. He writes that the benefits to Taller include enhanced organizational capacity and assistance in cultivating an array of local resources, whereas the foundation has earned increased respect from the Latino community, gaining access to potential board members.

Gonzales underscores the ways that art, culture, and educational attainment promote civic engagement. In the case of Taller Puertorriqueño, this has meant offering an array of programs that use art and culture to address issues in education, health, and the environment.

The case study is offered as an example of the reciprocal benefits of partnership for large institutions (grantors) and smaller grassroots agencies (grantees). He concludes that the model described has enhanced the capacity of both organizations to serve the city and the region's Latino community.









Ms. Jarusri Jiravisitkul

Community Foundations within the Context of Thai Society

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The research undertaken by Jarusri Jiravisitkul builds upon a current project in Thailand to establish four community foundations. This research project is based on three assumptions: (1) community foundations can help promote a healthy society by engaging the government, local organizations, corporations, and community members to work together on a partnership basis; (2) endowments serve community foundations as mechanisms to promote sustainable development; and (3) community foundations are an adaptable form of philanthropy with the potential to strategically invest in the future of society.


Using Rayong—one of the community foundation sites located on the eastern coast of Thailand—as her test case, Ms. Jiravisitkul explores how to leverage a traditionally unstructured philanthropic culture based on the precepts of Buddhism. She compares good practices for board engagement and resource mobilization, drawing on examples of both US and non-US community foundations in order to highlight customized strategies that work in different environments, societies, and cultures.


After reviewing current practices elsewhere and considering these against the economic, social, and cultural practices in Rayong, Ms. Jiravisitkul offers several recommendations.










Ms. Gráinne Kelly

The Challenges of Community Foundations in Supporting Third Sector Activity in Post-Conflict Societies: Lessons from Northern Ireland

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Gráinne Kelly explores the role that community foundations can play in supporting peacebuilding initiatives in regions emerging from violent conflict. Her discussion focuses on the example of Northern Ireland, a society struggling to come to terms with a thirty-year conflict that has caused underdevelopment, political instability, and social division. She draws on lessons from other post-conflict regions, including South Africa and Israel, and considers the work of community foundations in the United States that address racial tensions.


Ms. Kelly identifies several key questions:


Employing the characteristics developed by the Worldwide Initiative of Grantmakers (WINGS) to identify community foundations, Ms. Kelly concludes that the value of a community foundation lies in its ability to bring people together. Having identified the challenges that community-based foundations may face, Ms. Kelly moves on to consider the many benefits that such a structure can bring to a community emerging from conflicts.








Mr. Emmanuel Opati

Regional Associations of Grantmakers and Community Foundations

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Emmanuel Opati suggests that grantmakers' associations recently have helped promote the community foundation concept, including advocating for changes in tax laws to make it easier and more beneficial for individuals, businesses, and organizations to donate funds to community foundations.


Arguing that regional associations of grantmakers (RAGs) are increasingly able to build and provide support mechanisms that will allow foundations to thrive, Mr. Opati urges RAGs to work to develop their capacities in the following areas:


In his paper, Mr. Opati draws on a variety of examples to illustrate the role regional associations of grantmakers can play in promoting institutional philanthropy, creating intangible value by promoting partnerships, improving performance, and advancing the state of knowledge in the grantmaking field. In conclusion, Mr. Opati suggests that in building upon some of these recommendations, the East Africa Association of Grantmakers (EAAG) can strengthen existing institutions, foster indigenous philanthropy, and also promote the institutionalization of philanthropy within the region.









Ms. Ranka Šarenac

The Role of Community Foundations in Promoting Good Governance at the Local Level

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Ranka Šarenac seeks to identify the ways in which community foundations may contribute to building more accountable and transparent local government.


Ms. Šarenac argues that community foundations are “charitable bankers” and “social change agents.” They work to keep donors informed about local needs as they balance tensions between community needs and donor wishes. Based on her research, Ms. Šarenac concludes that community foundations can promote good governance at the local level by exercising both direct and indirect influence over local authorities.


Emphasizing the need for more institutionalized philanthropic action in Serbia and Montenegro, especially at the local level, Ms. Šarenac advocates for introducing a community foundation or foundation-like organization in Montenegro. She maintains that through the core characteristics of a representative board, accountability and transparency, community foundations may serve as exemplary models for governance, particularly in countries in transition.


Finally, in order to leverage more local resources and build credibility, international donor assistance is necessary to initiate the process of establishing a community foundation in Montenegro.










Ms. Upala Devi Banerjee

Engaging Diaspora Indian Women Entrepreneurs in Building Sustainable Mechanisms for Gender Issue Support in India: Challenges and Opportunities

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Ms. Banerjee sought to explore the issue of sustainability for initiatives like the South Asian Women's Fund (SAWF) and the prospects for generating diaspora funding.Acknowledging that raising funds in the diaspora for gender-related issues faces many challenges, Ms. Banerjee offers specific recommendations on what is needed to build sustainable funding for gender rights and empowerment issues in South Asia .

These include:








Mr. Fulufhelo Godfrey Netswera

Community Foundations in South Africa: Establishment and Sustenance Challenges

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In his paper, Fulu Netswera sets out four main objectives: 1) To look at factors informing traditional giving in South Africa; 2) To identify the lessons learned from South Africa's first community foundation's pilot program; 3) To examine the possibilities for mobilizing city resources from migrants; and 4) To consider the future of international donors in South Africa.

Emphasizing a rising black middle class as a potential source of giving back to rural communities, Mr. Netswera makes the following recommendations:








Mr. Vadim Samorodov

Community Foundations and Donor Development

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Vadim Samorodov explores the ways that select US community foundations play leadership roles and how these practices might be translated to fit the circumstances of contemporary Russia.


Using Community Foundation Silicon Valley (CFSV) as a case study, Mr. Samorodov makes the following recommendations for Russia 's Community Foundations:









Ms. Megan Tate

Youth in Philanthropy: Youth Civic Engagement through the Work of Community Foundations

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Maintaining that engaged citizens create healthy neighborhoods, cities, and nations, Megan Tate's paper examines how community foundations can encourage volunteering and philanthropic activities among young people.


Ms. Tate indicates that community foundations are taking a lead role in the Youth in movement that is flourishing in Canada and the United States, and emerging internationally. Her paper explores three models of Youth in Philanthropy initiatives: those at the Michigan Community Foundation, the Vancouver Foundation, and The Winnipeg Foundation.

Ms. Tate suggests that community foundations can strengthen their Youth in Philanthropy initiatives by:








Ms. Mariana Torres Blair

Mobilizing Resources through Mexican Hometown Associations to Community Foundations in Mexico

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Through examination of a possible partnership between the Puebla Community Foundation in Mexico and the Mixteca Organization, Inc. in the United States, Mariana Torres Blair explores the conditions that have to be met in order for transnational philanthropy to result in 1) sustainable development for the community of origin and 2) accountability and transparency for the migrants' community of residence.

As part of her project, Ms. Torres Blair:


Ms. Torres Blair plans to expand on her work by researching potential business and governmental involvement in the process, including the possibility of working with companies in the State of Puebla.









Ms. YunChing Tseng

Knowledge Management in Community Foundations

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Yun-Ching Tseng builds her research on two assumptions: 1) That community-based organizations (CBOs) are knowledge-intensive bodies that depend on that knowledge to strengthen their communities; 2) That organizations must use their intellectual assets effectively to survive.


Ms. Tseng argues that community foundations need to enhance their operations through improved knowledge management, and maintains that Taiwan 's nonprofit sector has much to learn from the US grantmaking community. Ms. Tseng presents a series of suggestions for Taiwan's CBOs, including:









Mr. Ihor Ilko

The Community Foundation in the United States as a Model for Replication in Ukraine: Mechanisms for Wide Community Engagement, Inclusiveness, and Representation of the Interests of Diverse Groups

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Ihor Ilko examined the US community foundation experience for lessons applicable to the Ukrainian philanthropic sector, despite differences in their legal and financial environments and scale of operations. Mr. Ilko explains that growing interest in community foundations in Ukraine is due in large part to the decline in the concept of the European welfare state and the resultant attention to non-governmental, decentralized models of social care. Factors identified as key to the successful development of community foundations include: institutional capacity, being deeply rooted in the community, and having the ability to demonstrate leadership within that community. Ihor Ilko points to the example of Canada where large foundations or national associations have acted as “incubators” for newly established community foundations by providing know-how and matching grants for start up. He indicates that because Ukraine's nonprofit sector and emerging community foundations reveal growth patterns similar to those experienced by US foundations, they face similar challenges. By way of example, he cites the multi-ethnic environment facing the Carpathian Foundation and the foundation's efforts to diversify its board, staff, and programs in order to reflect the ethnic identity of the region. Similarly, he cites the common need to establish grant programs reflecting the needs of low-income citizens. Finally, he cites the establishment of regional networks and international associations that encourage information sharing and best practices as critical to the success of community foundations in Ukraine and beyond.








Ms. Nancy Johnson

Diversity Initiatives in the US Community Foundation Movement: What Lessons for Canada?

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Explaining that “one of the great challenges facing not-for-profit agencies today is to fully reflect the diversity of their communities,” Nancy Johnson examines efforts to address this challenge in the US and Canada. She makes the case that diversity is of particular relevance to community foundations, pointing out that in Canada such foundations have “defined a 'special role' for themselves as representatives of the whole community.” Serious initiatives in the US to address the issue of diversity have contributed to the knowledge of diversity practices and tools in the field as reflected in changes in many individual community foundations. Overall, however, progress to increase diversity of community foundation governance, outreach, grantmaking and fund development over the last decade has been disappointing throughout North America. Further progress will require incorporating diversity issues into all aspects of foundation life—from grantmaking priorities to governance profiles, from the choice of vendors to selection of investment vehicles. Ms. Johnson concludes that unless strides are made to better reflect the age, ethnicity, gender, and racial diversity of communities, economic prosperity and social vitality will suffer, accompanied in all likelihood by increased support for ethno-specific funds established outside community foundations.









Mr. Christom Mkhize

An Investigation into the Viability of Partnerships between Uthungulu Community Foundation and Other Development Stakeholders: Proposal for Integrated Socio-Economic Development

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Pointing to the many constitutional, legal, and political disagreements that exist in South Africa between traditional leaders (Inkosi), civil society organizations, and government, Chris Mkhize identifies partnerships as critical to effectively harnessing the country's resources. He argues that the task of developing the country's local communities is too complex to be left to any one sector of society and maintains that private and public sector organizations must sit down together to identify mechanisms for the development, finance, and monitoring of local development initiatives. Mr. Mkhize argues, for example, that partnerships between government and civil society organizations are a means to addressing the problems of duplication and uncoordinated delivery of health, education, and other social services, particularly to rural communities. Underlying his paper is discussion of the extent to which community foundations and other stakeholders in community development share common strategies and the means to identify the best ways to promote and develop partnerships between the key players in community development. Proposed actions to be taken to further the partnership goals include working with the Uthungulu Community Foundation to further negotiations underway with government agencies, the University of Zululand, traditional leaders, and both local and district councils, to provide training on management and public administration to Inkosi and council representatives. Further recommendations include a partnership between civil society organizations and the business, directed at finding a speedier way to bridge the divide between traditional/tribal leaders and government.








Ms. Marcela Orvañanos de Rovzar

FONDEA Philanthropic Fund: First Step towards a Community Foundation

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Citing the need for community funding organizations that fit Mexico's unique philanthropic traditions, Marcela Orvañanos de Rovzar proposes to create a fund modeled on US community foundations, but consistent with Mexico's weak foundation sector. In her paper, Ms. Orvañanos de Rovzar presents a plan for creating the FONDEA philanthropic fund as a public foundation that would serve as a mechanism through which the private sector could support selected socioeconomic development initiatives in Mexico. The proposed fund would work in coordination with public programs and in close collaboration with nonprofit organizations and the community.


Because Mexico's Third Sector lacks a clearly defined legal structure and system of support, Marcela Orvañanos de Rovzar argues that Mexican nonprofits require increased financial support, better administration, and improved evaluation and monitoring mechanisms. She proposes to establish a grantmaking organization aimed at helping to address critical community problems, and at the same time that would constitute a useful model for institutionalized giving within the philanthropic sector. The proposed FONDEA fund would work to improve social awareness through donor development, teaching people how to give effectively regardless of economic background, gender or age. It would provide people with professional and monitored alternatives through which they could contribute to the well-being of their communities. Her paper includes an implementation plan that touches among other issues, on the incorporation process and seed capital, fund structure, grantmaking, and personnel.









Ms. Marion Webster

Ensuring Sustainable Community Foundations—Using the US Experience to Assist in Developing a Strategy and a Range of Tools to Help Community Foundations in Australia and the United Kingdom Achieve Sustainability through Local Philanthropy

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Marion Webster looks at the challenges of sustainability that community foundations face as they seek to promote civil society and improve the well-being of their communities, particularly in under-developed countries and small rural communities. She identifies two main approaches taken by community foundations—donor focused and community focused—that may affect the ways community foundations define and carry out their missions. Regardless of where a foundation chooses to position itself on this continuum, Marion Webster argues that a successful community foundation needs to develop a locally-raised permanent endowment (as ultimately this will give the foundation both independence and credibility). In addition to endowment size and the dollar value of its grantmaking, she identifies other measures of community foundation success, including, but not limited to:


Ms. Webster also discusses the importance of building a culture of giving within one's community and finding new ways of working with professional advisors and commercial charitable gift funds. While arguing that clarity of mission and strategic planning will help many community foundations achieve sustainability over time, she raises concerns about the impact of those that fail upon the credibility of the community foundation concept as a whole.









Ms. Priya Anand

Faith-based Giving from a Distant Land: Hindu Diaspora and Religious Giving

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Priya Anand documents the philanthropic role of the Hindu diaspora and the fundraising strategies used by Hindu religious institutions in the United States. Her study identifies where the philanthropic activities of temples and religious movements are directed (i.e. whether to India alone or also toward local causes); whether the beneficiaries are exclusively Indian; and whether these institutions serve as operating foundations or grantmakers. Her research includes a small-sample survey on philanthropic behavior to better understand donors' motivations for religious giving.


While many donors give because of their religious beliefs, Ms. Anand observes that the political climate made many donors wary of unwittingly supporting programs or causes that might covertly support “Hinduization.” In addition, many Indians donors prefer to make direct, personalized contributions. Based on her findings, she suggests that feedback on how donors' dollars are spent should be encouraged. Donor-designated funds may also be used to enhance giving by Indian Americans, enabling donors to contribute to programs or organizations of their choosing.











Ms. Alejandra Cervantes

Hometown Association as Catalysts for the Development of Community Foundations: The Zacatecan Case

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Alejandra Cervantes's study focuses on Zacatecan Hometown Associations (HTAs)—grassroots philanthropic organizations formed by Mexican immigrants in the United States and built on traditional immigrant networks. Reflecting their transnational reality, HTAs seek both to preserve the traditional culture of Zacatecan immigrants living in the US and, through donations, to improve life back in their communities of origin.


Ms. Cervantes contends that through their federations, HTAs are a strong vehicle for promoting the development of a community foundation in the state of Zacatecas. By mobilizing their two main assets—financial resources and social capital—Zacatecan HTAs have a strong capacity to grow, innovate, and channel donations to development in their home state. Given its transnational character, such an enterprise can benefit from a strategy centered on collaboration, and there are numerous institutions in the nonprofit and governmental sectors alike that could partner in such an initiative. Examples include such intermediary organizations as Caja Popular Mexicana; cross-border grantmakers like El Paso Community Foundation and the Pan-American Development Foundation; membership organizations such as The Hispanic Federation; and transnational projects (e.g. the Chicago-Mexico Leadership Initiative and the US-Mexico Border Philanthropy Partnership). Ms. Cervantes maintains that the cohesive nature of HTA federations argues strongly in favor of their serving as key actors in the establishment of a Zacatecan community foundation with strong cross-border ties that will facilitate effective local economic development.









Ms. Sarah Chilvers Deagle

Community-Based Art and Social Justice Grantmaking

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Sarah Chilvers attempts to draw an explicit link between social justice philanthropy and community-based art (defined as the process of collective art making whereby members of a community come together to co-create art in response to a community issue). As she explains, “Art has the ability to draw people into participating within the democratic process.” It can also develop social capital, increase civic dialogue, and foster community organizing.


Ms. Chilvers offers suggestions for how foundations can support these activities, which she defines as initiatives that 1) inspire and mobilize individuals or groups; 2) educate and inform participants about themselves and the world; 3) build and improve community capacity and/or infrastructure; and 4) have the capacity to nurture and heal people and their communities. She encourages community foundations to work through local, regional and national networks of grantmakers to fund community-based art projects as a means of promoting social justice, and to convene groups of artists and local organizations to build public awareness of their value.










Ms. Tiziana Colasanti

Emerging Community Foundations in Southern Italy: Social Utility, Overseas Partnering, and International Models

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Tiziana Colasanti explores different strategies for establishing and developing community foundations in Italy, particularly in the South. Drawing on discussions with community foundation leaders, representatives from the Italian American community, and those working to promote diaspora philanthropy, Ms. Colasanti recommends several ways to strengthen Italian community foundations. These include: identifying overseas corporate partners to promote diaspora philanthropy; organizing internships for Italy's nonprofit practitioners in more established US community foundations; and linking Italy's community foundations and nonprofits with more established organizations in the US. In particular, Tiziana explores possible partnerships for Italy's emerging community foundations with US-based United Way organizations, Italian American associations, and “friends of … associations” (akin to the Czech-American “Friends of Via” initiative).










Ms. Majda Ganibegovic

Developing an Effective Community Foundation Model within the Context of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Although Majda Ganibegovic suggests it is still early to establish an effective community foundation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, she sees a great deal of potential. As she explains, an effective community development/participation project could spur the development of a community foundation, particularly if it encompassed key stakeholders such as local NGOs, local government officials, and private businesspersons. These local stakeholders would anchor community development to existing resources, build a strong, locally influential consortium of implementation partners, and bring together community actors empowered to effect change on many levels. In the process, Bosnia and Herzegovina might avoid the pitfalls of dependency and create a sense of ownership of their development projects.











Ms. Snow (Hsueh-Lin) Lee

Make it Powerful: Tapping Diaspora Philanthropy as a Resource—An Example for Taiwanese Americans

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Snow Lee argues that there is a need to rethink the scope of traditional philanthropy. Her research focuses on ways to capitalize on international connections and tap into resources within diaspora communities. She examines the ways in which Taiwan's nonprofit organizations (NPOs) might attract resources from the overseas Taiwanese community, provides examples of Taiwanese American philanthropy, and offers research strategies for studying other diaspora communities.


Concluding that the “trust” and “information” gaps are the most important obstacles to promoting diaspora philanthropy, Ms. Lee argues that Information Technology (IT) can play an important role in closing these gaps by providing information on the missions, annual and financial reports, and project goals of nonprofit organizations. She recommends the use of web portals to provide both donors and local Taiwanese intermediary organizations with a credible “trade mark” to encourage overseas giving. Increased use of a single Taiwanese web portal like that of the Himalaya Foundation could help reduce duplication of efforts among NPOs.











Ms. Suzy (Qian) Li

The Community Foundation: A Model for Sustaining the Nonprofit Sector in China

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Suzy Li addresses the question of how to make the Chinese nonprofit sector more strategic and sustainable in the face of high levels of governmental control and cultural and legal definitions that constrain nonprofit organizations and foundations. Ms. Li contends that within China's legal environment the most attractive attributes of community foundations are their potential for developing social capital and their ability to help professionalize existing forms of local philanthropy and promote long-term solutions. Ms. Li suggests that a starting strategy for the Chinese nonprofit sector is to develop existing community-based organizations and/or to increase their effectiveness and independence. She also recommends working with China's existing intermediate organizations (e.g. China Development Brief and China NPO Network) to lay the groundwork for the creation of community foundations. Local government support for a pilot project on community foundations is also plausible in light of recent efforts by the Ministry of Civil Affairs to encourage community participation in social welfare provision.












Ms. Marlene Lewis

Diaspora Philanthropy: The Case of the Union of Jamaican Alumni Associations in New York City

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Jamaica's labor migration has created a large migrant community, concentrated largely in New York, and a growing tradition of diaspora philanthropy. Through her research, Marlene Lewis examines the philanthropic practices of Jamaican alumni organizations, a significant subset of the social welfare organizations created in the Jamaican diaspora. These organizations (in the US and Canada) have consistently served Jamaica in the areas of disaster relief, health, education, and community development. Ms. Lewis's study focuses on three main areas of their operations: philanthropic practices, factors influencing their philanthropic practices, and the potential for expanding collaborative networks.


Ms Lewis's model is the Union of Jamaican Alumni Associations in New York, a fundraising and grantmaking collaborative that was created out of the recognition that small organizations are often not able to sustain an adequate flow of funds. Her paper shows how a small but committed group of alumni organizations can provide critical support to a highly undercapitalized nonprofit sector. These alumni organizations solicit their funding almost exclusively from within Jamaican and Caribbean communities. While maintaining the independence of the individual organizations, they have successfully collaborated as a distribution mechanism for Jamaican diaspora funds.











Mr. Bhekinkosi Moyo

Community Foundations, Social Capital and Development in South Africa

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Citing the “need for a connecting thread between development projects and the people to be developed,” Mr. Moyo highlights the South African concept of ubuntu as a tool for channeling local philanthropy into emerging community foundations. Rooted in notions of the value of collective mutual aid that lie at the heart of ubuntuism, stokvels (initiatives that pool communal resources for specific ends such as savings clubs, burial societies, and collective investments) are a potential vehicle for increasing local giving. The challenge is to harness this tradition of collective capital formation for non-traditional ends. There is a strong need to present the community foundation model more clearly, in terms that local populations can understand, and to democratize local giving. As he explains, many “community foundations have not managed to sustain themselves simply because they have not taken the community along with them in fundraising.”











Mr. Sujeevan Perera

The Development of Local Philanthropy and Management of Foundation Resources

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Sujeevan Perera examines the question of how a secular culture of giving might be developed in Sri Lanka, a country where civil society is weak, poverty extensive, and social unrest an ongoing problem. As in many countries, Sri Lanka 's third sector is heavily reliant on foreign donors, the level of professional development is often low, local resources are limited, and public confidence in NGOs is often lacking. Although there is a strong tradition of religious philanthropy, little of this giving currently finds its way into social development programs.


Within this framework, Mr. Perera suggests several initiatives to foster a secular philanthropic culture in Sri Lanka. His suggestions include efforts to increase corporate social responsibility, promote diaspora philanthropy, introduce tax reforms, and develop more institutions to channel giving to philanthropic ends, including community foundations. He also notes that it may be possible to divert a portion of Sri Lankan remittances from the Middle East into social causes. First steps would be to collect and publicize stories of successful projects, and to identify and nurture potential donors. Necessary steps for creating a community foundation are also detailed, from managerial training to building a board and setting up different kinds of funds. Transparency should be stringently maintained to build trust, and Sri Lankan NGOs should create a self-regulatory authority to promote enhanced accountability within the sector.










Mr. Niloy Banerjee

From Merchant Capital to Merchant Philanthropy: Foundations of Occupational Communities in India

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Niloy's research begins with the idea that current definitions of 'community' are in a state of evolution; communities are no longer merely confined to the notion of a neighborhood, family or friends, but are increasingly being defined by a commonality of interests. In India, Mr. Banerjee argues, the new community of shared interests provides an historic opportunity for the development of community foundations. Professional communities represent an opportunity for channeling local philanthropy into areas where it is needed most—bringing entitlements and rights to the underprivileged. The merchant community provides such a group.

Also important is the governance and management of community foundations. Accordingly, Mr. Banerjee looks closely at US foundations to glean elements that are relevant to India. While no single western model provides a replicable template, his study offers a set of issues that suggest scope, size, nature, and character of such an effort in India. For example, he points out that to succeed, a new community foundation must have flexibility to work on a broad range of issues reflecting both donor and community interests and that in the absence of existing regulatory bodies there is a need to build disclosure norms into the charters of the proposed new Indian community foundations.









Ms. Valia Garzón Diaz

Philanthropy and the Guatemalan Diaspora in the United States

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Increasingly, contributions by immigrants to their countries of origin contain not only family remittances but also monies dedicated to solving the social problems faced by the sending community. Valia Garzón Diaz's investigation is based on the need for social and cultural organizations in Guatemala to capitalize on these funds. It examines the potential of the Guatemalan diaspora in the US to support local and national efforts in Guatemala and debates the feasibility applying, to the Guatemalan diaspora, successful models of diaspora philanthropy developed by other groups and organizations. Garzón Diaz's recommendations focus on establishing, maintaining, strengthening relationships with other organizations in the US in order to share experiences and strategies. These include establishing a tie between the Guatemalan artistic community in the United States and the Centro de Investigaciones Regionales De Mesoamérica (CIRMA), as well as strengthening relationships between CIRMA and such diaspora organizations as the BrazilFoundation. A final recommendation involves the importance of finding ways to involve second and third generations of the diaspora in projects in their countries of origin.











Ms. Annsilla Nyar

Community Foundations & Social Change: Understanding Philanthropy through Community Foundations in South Africa

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The paper examines the advent of a new kind of philanthropy in South Africa influenced by the community foundation model. The context is the rapidly changing cultural, political and socio-economic landscape of the post-apartheid order in South Africa. Key issues include: what community foundations in South Africa can learn from the experience of others; whether the community foundation model is replicable or easily transferable to fundamentally different philanthropic environments; and how a culture of voluntarism and social responsibility can be nurtured and promoted in South Africa. The research draws on semi-structured interviews with North American philanthropic agencies, community foundations, and grantmaking, as well as an exploration of several Southern models including the Foundation for Community Development in Mozambique and the Western Region Foundation in Zimbabwe. She argues that community foundations have the potential to change traditional conceptions of philanthropy in South Africa to a more progressive and people-oriented understanding of philanthropic giving. Finally, she indicates that the research feeds into a broader three-year research project into the state of “giving” in South Africa currently in progress at the Centre for Civil Society the University of Natal, Durban.









Mr. Satish Raj Pandey

Study of Selected Models of “Northern” and “Southern” Community Foundations and Their Applicability for the Nepalese Context

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In an effort to explore the potential of community foundations for jump-starting home-grown development resource initiatives, Satish's study explores different models of community foundations in the US and in selected southern countries; and how these models can be adapted to meet the needs of Nepal. Based on case studies, the author concludes that community foundations' key strengths are long-term perspectives on community development; institutional permanence (perpetuity); flexibility; and accountability. Elements central to the success of community foundations include: resources to build capacity from external bodies; early involvement of key stakeholders to create a sense of ownership; incremental, but progressive, initiatives that establish a successful track record; and a diverse board of directors.

In a country like Nepal where the presence of foreign and multilateral donors has created a culture of dependency among many development organizations, the community foundation concept can be a path-breaking innovation. While the author emphasizes the need to significantly expand the donor base in Nepal, he indicates that community foundations can play a major role in initiating and promoting private giving at the local level. He identifies several potential sources of funds for endowment building including: the sahu jamindars who have large land holdings; bequests from wealthy single individuals; and the promotion of corporate giving.









Ms. Kristyna Pichova

Czech American Diaspora Philanthropy and the Potential Role of Community Foundations in Strengthening Diaspora Philanthropy

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Set against the background of the Czech Republic 's transition from a communist system to a democratic one, the research considers new sources of funding to support the country's developing nonprofit sector. Although still young, the Czech-nonprofit sector plays an important role in free market development with democracy and civil society. Because individual giving and corporate philanthropy are not well developed, and government sources favor supporting the “old type,” state-founded institutions, Czech funders and NGOs are trying to address and attract new donors. Apart from encouraging corporate and individual giving in the Czech Republic, the Czech diaspora appears as a potential new source of funding for the young Czech civic sector.

Suggesting that in a modem globalized and electronically-connected world community need not always be geographically defined, the paper examines the potential of community foundations to encourage and channel diaspora giving. While keeping in mind the challenges associated with the highly assimilated Czech American communities, Ms. Pichova documents several examples of North American community foundations engaged in or forming partnerships likely to facilitate diaspora philanthropy. She concludes that there is great potential in linking regions in the Czech with regions in the US based on existing community foundations and/or Sister City relations in order to foster stronger ties between the Czech Republic and the communities in the US to which Czechs immigrated.









Ms. Felicitas von Peter

Changing the Way We Do Business—Community Foundations and the Competition for Charitable Assets

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This research is set against the backdrop of changing socioeconomic developments in the last decade, especially the technology boom in the 1990s. Economic growth has fueled an expansion of philanthropic giving. However, increased giving has generated two particular challenges for community foundations: new donors require a more intense level of donor involvement; and from the new national donor advised funds (NDAFs) offered by financial institutions. Although community foundations have offered donor-advised funds since the late 1970s, it was the entrance of commercial institutions like Fidelity Investment into the field in 1992 that have helped make donor-advised funds one of the most popular giving vehicles for charity. The success of NDAFs has taken community foundations by surprise and provided some with a rather harsh wake-up call. In her research, Ms. von Peter investigates how community foundations are facing the challenges presented by NDAFs, and how they differ in their approach to donors, the types of services they provide, and their role within the community. She argues that the new entrants from the for-profit sector can ultimately result in strengthening the nonprofit sector by forcing community foundations to reposition themselves and focus on developing their role as intermediaries between donors and the community. The research also shows how some financial institutions like Merrill Lynch have come to a “working agreement” with community foundations. This leads the author to suggest that donor-advised funds could link the for-profit and the non-profit sectors, ultimately resulting in increased philanthropic funds for the community.









Ms. Tatiana S. Sivaeva

Comparative Study on Types of Community-Business-Government Partnerships for Corporate Giving in Local Communities in the United States and in Russia

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The work is based on the premise that the government, business, and nonprofit sectors are interdependent, thereby justifying the need for collaborative action to insure the well-being of communities everywhere. Particular attention is paid to the role that different intermediary organizations—including community foundations—play in coordinating the interests of business donors and their communities. The study suggests that bridging the divide that separates the corporate, government and nonprofit sectors is a major requirement for the development of philanthropy and philanthropic partnerships in Russia. Accordingly, it examines the role intermediary organizations should play in establishing-business-government-community partnerships to facilitate corporate philanthropy. Ms. Sivaeva suggests that a broader dialogue among the different types of intermediaries could have a profound effect on improving practices, strengthening the players, and promoting the ideology of corporate giving among the broader public. Community foundations in particular are identified by Ms. Sivaeva as having the potential to connect the interests of businesses with the long-term interests of their communities. Some of the features that would distinguish Russian community foundations from other intermediary organizations are their on financial accountability and transparency, their diversified board structure, and their greater opportunities for maintaining independence through building endowments. Finally, the author offers suggestions for the further development of community foundation leadership in working with Russian corporate donors.









Ms. I-Wen Wang

How Foundations Have Strengthened the Civil Society Sector through Capacity-Building and Leadership Programs

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At a time when foundations are faced with increased expectations and pressure to identify critical issues and strengthen Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), the need to attract and retain quality personnel is critical. Arguing that human capital is an organization's most important resource, Ms. Wang seeks to provide an overview of grants and capacity-building programs based on a combination of case studies, a literature review, and interviews. Taking into consideration program design, implementation, and evaluation, Ms. Wang chose five representative models: The Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the Synergos Institute, The Ford Foundation, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and the Chicago Foundation for Women. Each of these organizations has developed materials and programs designed to build capacity and leadership among their own staffs or those of their grantees. The selected cases illuminate the grantmakers' role in the promotion and support of organizational effectiveness and efficiency, and are intended to stimulate discussion among practitioners, specifically foundation program officers. In her paper she examines what is unique the selected grantmaking foundations and identifies programs that may provide replicable for Taiwan, asserting that in spite of the cultural differences, the challenges are very similar. Finally, Ms. Wang indicates that capacity building simultaneously empowers CSOs and enhances the level of trust and honesty between grantees and grantmakers—observing that trust is an element critical to success.










Mr. Christoph Wilcke

Philanthropy among Arab Americans: Motivation and Type as Indicators for Group Identity

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At a time in history when Arab identity is a matter of global interest, this study seeks to use philanthropy—the giving of time and money—among members of the United States' diverse Arab American communities as an indicator for their identity as Arabs. For this paper, Mr. Wilcke combined research of the public records of Arab American organizations, both nationally and locally, with field research in Brooklyn , New York. The most challenging question in this research examined philanthropic motivations. Religion provided the strongest common focus for Arab Americans. This philanthropy is not always channeled toward Islamic organizations, reflecting that many Eastern Orthodox churches reside in Middle Eastern countries (the Chaldeans in Iraq, the Maronites in Lebanon, the Copts in Egypt, etc). Other foci for philanthropy were the needs of newly arrived immigrants (language instruction and employment guidance); professional interests; and preserving Arab culture and heritage.












Mr. Yiu Kai Terence Yuen

Governance of Organized Community Philanthropy: Community Foundations and United Ways

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The paper examines two models of organized philanthropy, namely community foundations and United Ways, which co-exist and undertake different roles in American society. By examining these two complementary yet competing models, the study analyzes the infrastructure and method of governance of organized community philanthropy in the United States. A typology of organized philanthropy is developed with reference to the ownership of the philanthropic institutions (public or private) and the nature of added benefits created by those institutions. In addition, an institutional model with multiple-level analysis is introduced for making sense of the infrastructure and governance arrangements of the philanthropic sector in American society.

The paper argues that the ultimate goal of community-based philanthropy should be to bridge the different processes of community building by matching available community resources with participatory problem-solving techniques . Fundraising and endowment building alone are unable to achieve this goal. Comparing a community-focused development strategy for promoting local philanthropy with a donor-focused strategy, the author concludes that the ideal model of organized community philanthropy is one that can enhance the effectiveness of all other entities involved in the community building process.










Ms. Gunita Bullite

Expanding the Donor Base for Community Foundations in Latvia: Corporate Community Involvement, Cross-Sectoral Partnerships and Diaspora Philanthropy

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Gunita Bullite's study seeks to suggest methods for broadening and sustaining the donor base of Latvia's emerging community foundations. She focuses on two groups of potential donors—business and the Latvian diaspora—and examines ways of engaging these groups in building Latvia's community infrastructure. Ms. Bullite studies international corporate giving patterns and the history of Latvian diaspora giving in order to suggest replicable models to facilitate the involvement of business in community development and also create an enhanced sense of trust donors, organizations, and recipients. Her recommendations are intended to raise awareness within corporate and diaspora groups about the mutual benefits that can be derived from involvement in community development, including community foundations.











Mr. Benedict Cele

The Greater Durban Community Foundation: Civil Society and Corporate Involvement

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Benedict Cele examines the role of the private, public, and civic sectors in the economic development of the Durban Metropolitan Area in South Africa. He argues that community foundations are uniquely suited to the Durban region, and have the potential to bring these sectors together. Building on case studies and discussions of the corporate-nonprofit relationship, Cele concludes with recommendations for the newly established Greater Durban Community. These recommendations address the issues of governance, community involvement support, adequate levels of staffing, and the design of a grantmaking priorities and program.














Ms. Marwa El-Daly

Islamic Philanthropy: Institutionalized Giving in the Muslim Perspective

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Islamic philanthropy has a long cultural and religious tradition to which new models of giving can be applied. Marwa El-Daly suggests that Muslim communities in the United States, with their experience with institutionalized philanthropy and an encouraging legal environment, could provide a new model of modern Islamic philanthropy; the Islamic diaspora has strong potential partnering with organizations in developing countries. El-Daly makes recommendations on her case studies, stressing: cooperation between government and civil society, as well as Islamic organizations; the importance of research and information sharing; and advocacy.














Ms. Wei-Ming Sunny Ho

Can Community Foundations Respond to the Needs of Current Philanthropic Development in Taiwan?

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Despite a long history, traditional philanthropic practices in Chinese culture are rarely discussed, and the institutionalization of philanthropic mechanisms is relatively neglected. This contributes an underdeveloped philanthropic community in comparison to the country's lively array of grass-roots and community-based organizations. The recent decentralization of the governmental structure in Taiwan indicates a need for greater community-focused development planning and resource mobilization. The community foundation model may serve as one solution to these needs. Ms. Ho reviews the evolution, formation, and roles of community foundations in the United States and, after identifying the key factors that correspond to the current needs of Taiwan 's philanthropic development, recommends applicable community-foundation-like operations.













Ms. Natalya Kaminarskaya

Types, Roles and Functions of Donor Support Structures

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Foreign donors and grantmaking institutions in Russia have implemented a few successful joint projects, and the Russia Donors' Forum (RDF), a non-formal coalition of grantmakers, was recently established. The purpose of Natalya Kaminarskaya's paper is to analyze some of the existing types of donor support structures and provide recommendations for the future development of the RDF. The paper includes a series of European and North American case studies, a discussion of appropriate international models, and suggestions for the development of professional philanthropic institutions in Russia. Her concluding section provides recommendations for the roles and functions, membership activities, services provided, finances, and objectives of the RDF.













Ms. Esther Lethlean

Diaspora: The New Philanthropy?

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For the purposes of her study, Esther Lethlean defines diaspora philanthropy as direct or indirect giving from an individual or group that identifies with an original homeland. She provides case studies of three models of diaspora philanthropy: private foundations, public charities, and international intermediaries. In all cases, a group's identification with and emotional commitment to their original homeland was essential for the establishment, funding, and longevity of diaspora giving. While each diaspora community should adopt a model appropriate to its culture of giving, and national legal and fiscal requirements, the author provides universally applicable recommendations for the success of diaspora philanthropy.













Ms. Ritu Mohan

Building Linkages for a Strong Civil Society: A Discussion Paper in Support of a Civil Society Resource Organization

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Ritu Mohan's essay focuses on the application of the community foundation (or Civil Society Resource Organization) model toward mobilizing resources for the local community in Delhi, India. The author describes some of the best examples of cross-sectoral collaborations in the Philippines, Africa, and the United States, and how these models have ensured civic participation. To meet the challenges of globalization, she suggests a partnership between civil society, the nonprofit sector, and business. Her proposals are aimed at encouraging citizen action through (1) training and development inputs; (2) organizational cooperation and collaboration; and (3) employee-related programs and volunteering. She concludes that urban India, with its resources, must learn from global experiences of collective action and apply innovative approaches to sustain community development and deliver equitable growth.













Mr. Otieno Aluoka Nashon Ogolla

Diaspora Philanthropy: The Promise and Limitations in Strengthening Transatlantic Giving by Africans and African Americans through Community Foundations

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Otieno Aluoka Nashon Ogolla discusses trends in philanthropic giving to Africa by African Americans and immigrants, and suggests ways the community foundation model might be applied to the African diaspora. He discusses current areas of need in Africa, and evaluates various philanthropic models, concluding with recommendations for improving diaspora giving. He suggests, among other things, that “reconstruction” in Africa will require reciprocity and conscious cooperation between the two communities. Economic opportunities for African Americans are also key to establishing a sufficient net base of philanthropic resources.












Mr. Sheng-shu Jack Shen

The E-Way to Philanthropy

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In this paper, Sheng-shu Jack Shen describes the benefits and challenges of Information Technology for nonprofit organizations. To help enable nonprofits to make use of this technology, Shen provides detailed discussions of the technology itself and its uses: hardware and software; intranet and internet; fundraising and membership building, etc. To help deal with the problems faced by nonprofits using Information Technology, and to begin to address the digital divide among these organizations, he proposes the establishment of Nonprofit Technology Centers that might work with or within community foundations.














Ms. Snigdha Emelda Tigga

Community Foundations in Bangladesh?

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Snigdha Emelda Tigga discusses the potential for community development foundations to address the issue of poverty in Bangladesh, as well as the challenges they face. She recommends several steps that might be taken to create an enabling environment for these foundations. Her suggestions include: changing attitudes, as well as fiscal policy; building partnerships among the sectors; mobilizing funds for operation and endowment building. She concludes that the Bangladesh Freedom Foundation, a local philanthropic organization, might play a role in promoting the community development foundation concept.














Ms. Jung-Rin Kim

Financial Development of Women's Organizations: Community Foundations as an Alternative

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Jung-Rin Kim's study is designed to identify strategies for the development and sustainability of Korean women's organizations by examining the history and experience of women's foundations in the United States. She applies the community foundation model to an affinity (as opposed to a geographic) grouping. Kim notes that “Men control most of the economic and social capital and most capital is concentrated in a few major cities.” Therefore, women's organizations are underfunded and heavily dependent on volunteer time. Kim develops a tri-focused strategy for Korean community foundations. They should serve as resource monitors, programmatic initiators, and most importantly as trainers to overcome the sector's lack of organizational and professional capacity. She lists three conditions necessary for the establishment of women's community foundations: the involvement of dedicated community leadership; the amendment of the legal framework to facilitate corporate involvement in the community foundation movement; and the willingness of those involved to sustain their commitment over a long period of time. The last point is drawn directly from the Russian experience which, like Korea, is still in the process of transition from an authoritarian to democratic form of governance.












Ms. Angela Calvo Linares

Building Community Foundations in Colombia: Ideas for Viable and Sustainable Community Foundations

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Colombia is facing its worst crisis since the violence of the 1940s. In her study, Angela Calvo Linares argues that community foundations can mitigate some of the effects of dislocation as well as lay the groundwork for a sustained effort to strengthen civil society by helping nonprofits develop social programs, mobilizing resources, and promoting cross-sector collaboration. In her conclusion, Calvo Linares writes, “Community foundations not only promote democracy, and social and economic development, they promote values and practices that constitute an essential ingredient in the reconstruction of the fabric of society and the construction of the peace.”














Ms. Elizabeth Rose Nandudu

Urban Philanthropic Activities and Street Children: A Comparative Study

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In her study, Elizabeth Nandudu addresses the serious and, in some regions of the world, growing problem of street children. Her approach is comparative and she attempts to delineate best practices employed by nonprofits in the United States (Covenant House) and Brazil (the Abrinq Foundation) that could be adopted to strengthen efforts underway in Kampala. The paper develops a conceptual framework that includes causes, conditions, methods of survival, and the societal implications for a country having a large population of homeless children. She offers several solution models (rescue, child empowerment, re-integration, and family empowerment) and suggests that an “alternative community foundation model” could best integrate the diverse and multi-level efforts (from fundraising to programming and networking) needed to successfully combat homelessness among children.













Ms. Zuzana Podhorska Konrádová

Sustainability and Long Term Viability of Community Foundations in Slovakia

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The essay focuses on community foundations in Slovakia and their contributions to the development of urban philanthropy. Ms. Podhorska places community foundations in the country's political (transition from communism) and economic (mounting unemployment) contexts. Two community models are compared—the American and the Slovakian—with an emphasis on resource development, fundraising strategies, promotional campaigns and grantmaking. She concludes with the assertion that more than anything else community foundations are a key component in establishing the trust necessary to re-build civil society in the new social, political, and economic conditions in Slovakia. But for this to occur, a strategy for the evaluation and long-term sustainability of community foundations needs to be developed.













Ms. Bhavna Ramrakhiani

Business, Citizens, and NGOs: Working Together to Enhance the Quality of Life in Gujarat, India

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In the context of increasing wealth and widening income disparities between rich and poor caused by globalization, Bhavna Ramrakhiani's paper examines how the business sector, individual citizens, and NGOs can work together to improve the lives of the underprivileged in Gujarat, India. She identifies three tools that are necessary: capacity building in both the business and nonprofit sectors; collaboration; and voluntarism. The vehicle she sees as best suited to conduct this work is a modified community foundation, which, in the initial phase, would generate revenue through capacity-building training and then seek to build endowments.















Mr. Oleg Stakhanov

Soliciting Individual Contributions by Russian Community Foundations

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Stakhanov's study identifies fundraising techniques to help Russian community foundations attract individual donations. Coming ten years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the study links the growth of philanthropy in general, and the community foundation model in particular, with strengthening civil society and democratic forms of governance. However, many believe that NGOs misuse funds. Overcoming this negative perception is a great challenge to community foundations and the other 250,000 nonprofits in Russia. In closing, Stakhanov recommends that all fundraising efforts should exploit the “psychological need to give” and a multiple of market-based techniques. He further suggests that community foundations should consider separate campaigns: one for the general public and a second for the wealthy/elite who are more likely to give after long-term solicitation and relationship building.














Mr. Xolani Zungu

Shaping the Future of Urban South Africa: Community Foundations for Strong Civil Society: The Role of Local Government

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Politically and administratively, South Africa is undergoing important transformations. In his study, Xolani Zungu makes three proposals to invigorate the local government-civil society relationship. Local government should promote the democratic involvement of citizens, community responsibility, and mechanisms that enable communities to raise and manage resources, and community foundations are one means of achieving these changes. He goes on to write, “Community foundations, characterized by their focus on local asset development, local control and local decision making are uniquely suited for South African urban areas.”